Lo scioglimento delle unioni civili

Unioni civili!

Sono passati meno di tre anni dal riconoscimento in Italia del diritto degli omosessuali di formalizzare il loro rapporto mediante un'unione civile,

avvenuto con l'emanazione della cd. legge Cirinnà e, com’è naturale che sia, esattamente come è stata disciplinata la creazione di tale vincolo, si è posto il problema delle modalità di scioglimento dello stesso.

Ed è nei commi 22-27 dell’unico articolo della legge 76/2016 che si tratta il tema dello scioglimento dell’unione civile, stabilendosi come si debba procedere per addivenirvi.

Nello specifico, il comma 24 della norma prevede che ciascuna delle due parti contraenti il vincolo sia libera di chiedere lo scioglimento dell’unione (il divorzio) in qualsiasi momento, con o senza l’accordo con l’altra.

A differenza di quanto accade per le coppie unite in matrimonio, in questo caso si parla direttamente di divorzio (in virtù del richiamo fatto, al comma 25, alla legge 1° dicembre 1970, n. 898): dunque le unioni civili possono sciogliersi molto più celermente rispetto alle unioni matrimoniali, dal momento che non è necessario passare per la formale separazione.

Tuttavia, al fine di garantire un lasso di tempo ai partner, verosimilmente per consentire loro la possibilità di riconciliarsi, è previsto che gli stessi debbano innanzitutto comunicare all'Ufficiale di Stato Civile, congiuntamente o disgiuntamente (ma in tale ultimo caso la volontà di scioglimento deve essere portata a conoscenza dell’altra parte), la loro intenzione di dividersi; solo trascorsi tre mesi da tale dichiarazionediviene possibile proporre domanda di divorzio.  

 

Sul punto, in realtà, sono già sorti i primi dubbi: ai fini del deposito della domanda di divorzio è necessario che trascorrano tre mesi dalla data della dichiarazione di scioglimento, oppure è sufficiente che tra la data di siffatta dichiarazione e quella dell’udienza dinanzi al Presidente sia trascorso un lasso di tempo pari o superiore a tre mesi?

La questione è sollevabile sulla base del fatto che l’art. 1, comma 24, l. n. 76/2016non qualifica espressamente tale dichiarazione di scioglimento come condizione di procedibilità dell’azione e non fa discendere alcuna conseguenza dalla sua assenza, potendo quindi il periodo trimestrale considerarsi unicamente come periodo di riflessione prodromico all’instaurazione del giudizio.

Ad ogni modo, espressa tale dichiarazione di volontà, le strade per divorziare sono analoghe a quelle previste dal nostro ordinamento per il matrimonio, ossia:

  • ricorso congiunto o ricorso contenzioso per lo scioglimento dell’unione civile avanti al Tribunale;
  • dichiarazione in Comune avanti all’Ufficiale dello Stato Civile;
  • accordo di negoziazione assistitadagli avvocati (dal momento che la legge Cirinnà, al comma 25, richiama ancheilL. 132/14).

Nel contesto degli accordi o del provvedimento del giudice (qualora non vi sia accordo), al partner economicamente più debole può essere riconosciuto un assegno di mantenimento periodico posto a carico dell'altro (o una dazione c.d. una tantum) ed anche l'assegnazione della casa, come accade per le coppie coniugate.

Ci sono, comunque, casi in cui l'unione civile si scioglie automaticamente, come espressamente previsto dalla legge: quando il partner muore o èdichiarata la sua morte presunta o qualora vi sia stata la rettifica di sesso da parte di una delle due parti.

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