Divorzio ed eredità: cosa spetta al mio ex?

Nel novero dei c.d legittimari è inserito, tra gli altri, il coniuge, il quale, in quanto tale, è un erede necessario: fa parte di coloro i quali non possono essere esclusi del tutto dalla successione, neanche con un testamento.

La quota di eredità spettante al coniuge varia a seconda che si abbia la successione legittima, quella che si apre in assenza di testamento, oppure quella testamentaria, essendoci anche in quest’ultimo caso, al di là delle statuizioni del de cuis, una quota minima riservata al coniuge superstite.

Quello che interessa sapere a molti, però, è cosa accade in caso di separazione e/o divorzio dal defunto: si diventa o meno eredi dell’ex coniuge, nell’ipotesi in cui questi non abbia redatto un testamento?

La risposta all’interrogativo varia a seconda che si tratti di separazione o di divorzio e, ulteriormente, a seconda che intervenga o meno una pronuncia di addebito.

Partendo da una veloce disamina della situazione successoria in caso di separazione tra coniugi, che sia essa una consensuale o una giudiziale, purché priva di addebito, l’ex coniuge separato ha gli stessi diritti successori del coniuge non separato.                Dunque dal punto di vista successorio è come se la separazione non fosse mai avvenuta.                                                                                                                              Qualora, invece, nei confronti del coniuge superstite sia stato pronunciato l’addebito della separazione, perché ritenuto “colpevole” della separazione, sancito da sentenza divenuta definitiva, la situazione cambia: il coniuge superstite perde i diritti successori nei confronti dell’ex coniuge defunto, seppur permanga in tal caso un importante diritto a suo favore, ossia quello ad un assegno vitalizio qualora al momento dell’apertura della successione egli godeva degli alimenti a carico del coniuge deceduto.

Inoltre, se il coniuge deceduto era lavoratore e ha maturato il Trattamento di fine rapporto, quest’ultimo deve essere corrisposto ai suoi familiari, ivi compreso l’ex coniuge separato, esattamente come la pensione di reversibilità spetta di diritto al coniuge separato.

Veniamo, ora, al caso del divorzio.                                                                                                              Qual è la posizione del coniuge divorziato superstite nella compagine ereditaria del de cuius?

In prima battuta, è bene mettere in chiaro che il divorzio cancella tutti i diritti successori. Dunque, il diritto a diventare erede nei confronti dell’ex decadeuna volta intervenuto il divorzio tra i coniugi.

Questo principale assunto, però, deve essere corredato da quella che è una possibilità concessa al coniuge superstite divorziato, ossia quella di chiedere un assegno a carico dell’ereditàin suo favore. Tale richiesta è consentita solo ove vi sia unostato di bisogno in cui versi il coniuge superstite, il quale può quindi fare domanda al tribunale per vedersi riconosciuto un assegno periodico a carico degli eredi dell’ex marito. Questa possibilità, comunque, è concessa solo nel caso in cui il richiedente sia titolare di un assegno divorzile, in mancanza del quale vi è una preclusione in tal senso. Nulla è dovuto, invece, se gli obblighi patrimoniali sono stati soddisfatti mediante un pagamento effettuato una tantum, ossia in un’unica soluzione.

Ma vi è di più.                                                                                                                Il coniuge superstite ha anche diritto alla pensione di reversibilitàspettante agli eredi dell’ex coniuge, seppur solo in presenza di determinati requisiti: la percezione di un assegno di divorzio periodico al momento della morte dell’ex coniuge(per cui, anche in tal caso, nulla spetta se gli obblighi patrimoniali sono stati soddisfatti in unica soluzione), il non esser convolato a nuove nozze, l’essersi il rapporto di lavoro del coniuge defunto svolto in data anteriore alla sentenza di divorzio.    Qualora sia stato il de cuiusad essersi risposato dopo il divorzio, il Tribunale attribuisce all'ex coniuge, sempre solo se titolare dell'assegno, una quota della pensione e degli altri assegni; per il calcolo di tale quota si tiene in considerazione non solo la durata del rispettivo rapporto, ma anche altre circostanze, come l'eventuale stato di bisogno del coniuge attuale e dell'ex coniuge.                                        Nel caso in cui oltre al coniuge superstite vi siano altri coniugi divorziati, ci sarebbe la ripartizione della pensione tra tutti gli aventi dirittoeffettuata da parte del tribunale, che terrebbe conto, in tal caso, della durata legale dei rispettivi matrimoni, nonché di altri elementi da valutarsi discrezionalmente (quali l’ammontare dell’assegno goduto dal coniuge divorziato prima della morte dell’ex coniuge).

Per tirare le fila del discorso, è di tutta evidenza che con il divorzio, venendo definitivamente meno il vincolo matrimoniale, vengano meno anche i diritti ereditari sul patrimonio dell'ex coniuge defunto, se non per quanto riguarda l’assegno periodico a carico degli eredi e la pensione di reversibilità, diritti eventuali, che possono cioè essere fatti valere solo in presenza dei presupposti summenzionati.

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