Quali spese sono ricomprese nell'assegno di mantenimento ai figli?

Assegno di mantenimento!

Gli artt. artt. 147 e ss. del codice civile e l’art. 30 della Costituzione sanciscono l’obbligo a carico dei genitori di mantenere, istruire, educare ed assistere moralmente la prole, nel rispetto delle capacità, delle inclinazioni naturali e delle aspirazioni della stessa.

Sotto il profilo economico, l’art 316 bisc.c. specifica che i genitori debbano adempiere i loro obblighi nei confronti dei figli in proporzione alle rispettive sostanze e secondo la loro capacità di lavoro professionale o casalingo.

Tale diritto riconosciuto ai figli è legato al sol fatto della loro procreazione, ed è dunque assolutamente svincolato dallo status giuridico dei genitori.

Con ciò si intende dire che, anche in caso di fine della relazione sentimentale tra madre e padre, il figlio non vede certamente perso il diritto ad essere mantenuto ed assistito.

Che ci si trovi dinnanzi a separazione, scioglimento, cessazione degli effetti civili, annullamento, nullità del matrimonio e finanche nell’ambito di procedimenti relativi ai figli nati fuori del matrimonio, la situazione non cambia: in assenza di un accordo tra le parti, sarà il giudice a stabilire il quantumdell’assegno di mantenimento destinato al sostentamento della prole a favore del coniuge collocatario dei figli minori o maggiorenni ma non economicamente indipendenti (sempre che permanga la convivenza con il genitore).

E, come precisato nell’art 337 terc.c., nello stabilire l’ammontare della dazione, il giudice tiene conto del criterio di proporzionalità, e prende in considerazione:le attuali esigenze del figlio; il tenore di vita goduto dal figlio in costanza di convivenza con entrambi i genitori;i tempi di permanenza presso ciascun genitore; le risorse economiche di entrambi i genitori; la valenza economica dei compiti domestici e di cura assunti da ciascun genitore.

L’assegno di cui parlasi, però, non ricomprende tutte le somme da corrispondere ai fini del soddisfacimenti dei bisogni della prole, dal momento che esso riguarda soltanto le c.d. spese "ordinarie": si tratta di quelle spese attuali e prevedibili, necessarie a soddisfare esigenze di vita quotidiana, quali spese alimentari,  scolastiche (alcune), sanitarie, per l'igiene personale e il vestiario.

Il genitore onerato dalla corresponsione dell’assegno, però, deve collaborare anche alle spese c.d. "straordinarie”, ossia tutte quelle ulteriori spese, imprevedibili e di importo variabile, eventualmente necessarie al soddisfacimento delle esigenze dei figli.

Di conseguenza, il genitore chiamato a corrispondere l’assegno di mantenimento a favore dei figli, dovrà collaborare anche al pagamento delle spese straordinarie.

Ciò detto, non essendoci un’indicazione tassativa delle spese ricadenti in detta ultima categoria, sulla ripartizione delle spese straordinarie le Corti non seguono un orientamento comune.

La maggior parte dei provvedimenti, comunque, stabilisce una percentuale variabile per far fronte agli esborsi di carattere straordinario, che si aggiunge all'obbligo di corrispondere l’assegno periodico a titolo di contribuzione al mantenimento della prole.                                                                                                                         È frequente la previsione di un contributo in misura del 50% per ciascun coniuge per le spese straordinarie (ma, considerando le diversità delle singole casistiche, è possibile che tale percentuale vari o che, addirittura, le spese straordinarie siano addebitate al 100% ad uno solo dei due coniugi).

Con riferimento a tali spese, ad ogni buon conto, è doveroso fare delle precisazioni.

Bisogna infatti distinguere tra spese straordinarie che necessitano del consenso di entrambi i coniugie spese straordinarie che non necessitano la previa concertazione, seppur tale distinzione non si riverberi sul dovere di contribuire proquota a tali spese, che rimane invariato per entrambe le tipologie.

Per talune spese straordinarie è richiesto il preventivo accordo tra i genitori, salvo che tali spese siano indifferibili ed urgenti, quali possono essere talune spese mediche. L’accordo è necessario sulla base del principio codicistico per cui le decisioni di "maggior interesse" per i figli debbono essere assunte di "comune accordo" tra i genitori.

Di regola, quindi, per tali spese straordinarie il coniuge che le ha sostenute e ne chieda il rimborso deve fornire la prova di aver provveduto a consultare preventivamente l'altro.

Ci sono, al contrario, spese straordinarie sostenibili senza il preventivo consenso dell’altro coniuge, il quale deve comunque contribuire attraverso il rimborso della propria quota.

Per un'esatta distinzione tra spese straordinarie che necessitano del consenso di entrambi i coniugi e spese straordinarie che prescindono dalla preventiva concertazione, è possibile consultare le "Linee guida per la regolamentazione delle modalità di mantenimento dei figli nelle cause di diritto familiare" elaborate nel 2017 dal Consiglio Nazionale Forense.

In ogni caso, per cercare di contenere i frequenti conflitti tra le coppie, alcuni Tribunali (tra cui quello di Bari), in collaborazione con Consigli dell'Ordine Forense, Associazioni ed esperti, hanno redatto dei protocolli d'intesa destinati a fornire delle linee guida precise ai fini della qualificazione delle spese ordinarie e straordinarie, che hanno certamente dato una grande mano nel contesto delle cause separative, onde cercare di attutire le numerose divergenze in materia.

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