Quando si scioglie la “comunione dei beni”?

Comunione dei beni!

Argomento oggetto di numerosi dibattitti tra dottrina e giurisprudenza è stato senza dubbio quello relativo al dies a quo dello scioglimento della comunione legale: qual è il momento a partire dal quale il regime patrimoniale in questione può ritenersi sciolto ed i coniugi possono procedere alla divisione dei beni compresi nella comunione?

I dubbi sono sorti a causa della formulazione dell’art 191 c.c., il quale indica i casi in cui la comunione legale tra i coniugi si scioglie, e tra questi annovera “la separazione personale”, senza fornire alcuna indicazione dettagliata circa il momento a partire dal quale possa ritenersi effettivo lo scioglimento.

La risposta al quesito impone una distinzione tra le due modalità tipiche in cui può espletarsi la separazione tra i coniugi; infatti, pur essendo risaputo che le modalità per addivenire alla separazione personale sono diverse (vedi articolo…), essenzialmente si distingue tra due ipotesi: quella della separazione giudiziale e quella della separazione consensuale.

Con riferimento a quest’ultima, la discussione sul momento dello scioglimento della comunione è stato meno acceso, essendo la giurisprudenza concorde nel ritenere che fosse l'omologazione dell'accordo tra i coniugi ildies a quodi riferimento perché si potesse tecnicamente parlare di scioglimento del regime patrimoniale legale.

Al contrario, si prospettava particolarmente complicata la risoluzione del quesito per l’ipotesi della separazione giudiziale.

La maggiore difficoltà interpretativa di questo caso è legata al fatto che nel corso del giudizio di separazione il rapporto coniugale continua, e non viene meno neanche con i provvedimenti provvisori ed urgenti assunti dal presidente del Tribunale ex art. 708 c.p.c.

Questi ultimi, infatti, non sancendo la cessazione del rapporto di coniugio, in virtù della loro natura transitoria, non possono determinare lo scioglimento della comunione legale tra i coniugi.

Con riferimento all’ipotesi della separazione giudiziale, esistevano essenzialmente due orientamenti in merito al dies a quodi scioglimento della comunione legale: il primo propendeva per il dare valore al passaggio in giudicato della sentenza che definiva la separazione, momento a partire dal quale si poteva ritenere sciolta la comunione legale.                                                                                                                            A tale orientamento dominante, era contrapposto quello che propendeva, invece, per l’effetto retroattivo: lo scioglimento della comunione si verificava dal momento della proposizione della domanda di separazione.

Le forti incertezze legate a questa tematica, insieme alle varie tesi susseguitesi in merito, si sono dissolte con l’introduzione del nuovo secondo comma dell'art. 191 c.c., introdotto dalla legge 6 maggio 2015 n. 55, il quale dispone che «la comunione tra i coniugi si scioglie nel momento in cui il Presidente del Tribunale autorizza i coniugi a vivere separati, ovvero alla data di sottoscrizione del processo verbale di separazione consensuale dei coniugi dinanzi al Presidente, purché omologato».

È pacifico, dunque, che la comunione legale tra i coniugi si sciolga dal momento dell'udienza presidenziale.

Appare piuttosto chiara la finalità della riforma di snellire i tempi di svolgimento delle procedure, permettendo anche di proporre la domanda di scioglimento della comunione nel corso del giudizio di separazione. Tale ultima possibilità era preclusa prima della summenzionata innovazione normativa, dal momento che optando per lo scioglimento della comunione in concomitanza con il passaggio in giudicato della sentenza di separazione, era possibile, visti anche i tempi dilatati delle procedure, che trascorressero diversi anni prima che si potesse procedere alla divisione dei beni ricompresi nella comunione.

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