L'addebito della separazione: presupposti e conseguenze

"L'addebito della separazione: presupposti e conseguenze"

Molto spesso si sente parlare di “separazione con addebito”, ma esistono una serie di dubbi in merito al significato di tale espressione.

In questo articolo cercheremo di fare chiarezza su cosa sia e su quali siano presupposti e conseguenze di una separazione addebitata ad uno dei due coniugi.

Premesso che la condizione necessaria e sufficiente perché si possa ottenere una pronuncia giudiziale di separazione è l'intollerabilità della prosecuzione del rapporto coniugale, è possibile che uno dei due coniugi chieda al giudice di accertare che la separazione sia stata determinata da un comportamento del partner contrario ai doveri nascenti dal matrimonio, ossia che la crisi coniugale sia stata causata dal comportamento dell'altro.

Dunque, l’addebito non viene dichiarato d’ufficio dal giudice della separazione, ma deve essere richiesto dal coniuge interessato a far valere la responsabilità dell’altro coniuge per la fine del matrimonio.

Va da sé, quindi, che l’addebito non possa essere chiesto né dichiarato in un accordo di separazione consensuale, neppure nell’ambito della separazione mediante negoziazione assistita (questo perché una responsabilità può essere accertata da un giudice, non stabilita di comune accordo tra marito e moglie separandi).

In particolare, affinché si possa ottenere una pronuncia di separazione con addebito ad uno dei coniugi, è necessario che l'autorità giudiziaria, dietro specifica richiesta di parte, appuri che la rottura dell'unione coniugale sia stata determinata dalla violazione, da parte di una sola delle parti, dei doveri reciproci dei coniugi disciplinati dall'art. 143 del codice civile (che prevede i doveri di fedeltà, di assistenza morale e materiale, di collaborazione nell'interesse della famiglia e di coabitazione).

Giurisprudenza ormai consolidata, tuttavia, ritiene che per l’addebitabilità della separazione in capo ad un solo coniuge sia necessario che la suddetta violazione dei doveri matrimoniali sia antecedente alla proposizione della domanda di separazione e, soprattutto, che sussista un rapporto di causa-effetto tra la violazione stessa e la sopravvenuta intollerabilità della convivenza, ossia che il mancato rispetto di uno di quei doveri sia la causa diretta della crisi familiare.

La prova dell’esistenza di tale collegamento diretto è senza dubbio particolarmente difficile da produrre, ed anche per il caso più diffuso in cui il coniuge agisce per ottenere l’addebito della separazione all’altro, ossia quello del tradimento subito dal partner, la Corte di Cassazione si è pronunciata sottolineando che pure in tal caso è necessario dar prova che l'infedeltà sia stata la causa esclusiva della crisi coniugale, e non il suo effetto, dimostrazione tutt’altro che semplice da fornire.

Quanto, invece, alle conseguenze dell'addebito della separazione, esse sono prevalentemente di carattere patrimoniale. In particolare, qualora si riesca ad ottenere una pronuncia di separazione con addebito all’altro coniuge, le conseguenze che ne deriveranno saranno le seguenti:

-Perdita del diritto all'assegno di mantenimento: il coniuge cui è stata addebitata la separazione perderà il diritto a percepire un eventuale assegno di mantenimento in suo favore ed a carico dell’altro, finalizzato a garantire all'ex coniuge un tenore di vita simile a quello tenuto in costanza di matrimonio (conserverà solo il diritto agli alimenti, qualora vi siano i presupposti per ottenerlo, ossia nel caso in cui il coniuge colpevole della separazione versi in uno stato di bisogno).

-Perdita dei diritti successori: il coniuge separato con addebito, perderà tutti i diritti successori inerenti allo stato coniugale, conservando solo l’eventuale diritto a un assegno alimentare a carico dell’eredità, sempre che, all'apertura della successione, godesse già dell'assegno alimentare.

-Perdita del diritto alla pensione di reversibilità: in caso di separazione con addebito, infine, il coniuge cui è stata attribuita la “colpa” della separazione perderà il diritto alla pensione di reversibilità e alle altre indennità e prestazioni previdenziali riconosciute al coniuge defunto.

Chiarito quale sia il significato di una separazione con addebito (con risvolti unicamente di carattere economico), ma considerando che gran parte delle conseguenze derivanti da una pronuncia di separazione addebitata ad una parte si producono comunque con la cessazione degli effetti civili/lo scioglimento del matrimonio (vedi, a tal proposito l’articolo presente in questo blog inerente le differenze tra separazione e divorzio), e valutando le conseguenze negative di una separazione giudiziale, che comporta una maggiore durata della procedura, maggiori costi, incertezze circa gli esiti del giudizio ed uno stress emotivo per tutti i soggetti che vi siano coinvolti, è sempre meglio tentare di addivenire ad una separazione consensuale, cercando di superare, con l’assistenza di professionisti del settore, elementi di contesa o rivalsa personale.

Avvocato Teresa De Crescenzo

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