Il contratto di convivenza: a cosa serve e come funziona?

I contratti di convivenza.

Il contratto di convivenzarappresenta una novità introdotta, insieme con le unioni civili, dalla legge 20 maggio 2016, n.76 (c.d. Legge Cirinnà): dal comma 50 a 64 dell’art 1 essa disciplina proprio tale tipologia di contratto, di cui delinea contenuto e forma.

Nello specifico, l’art 1, comma 50 stabilisce che : “I conviventi di fatto possono disciplinare i rapporti patrimoniali relativi alla loro vita in comune con la sottoscrizione di un contratto di convivenza”.

 

Partendo da una definizione, il contratto di convivenza, che può essere stipulato da quelle coppie che decidono di vivere insieme stabilmente, è quell'accordo con cui la coppia definisce le regole della propria convivenza, disciplinando i reciproci rapporti patrimoniali.

 

Presupposto fondamentale per poter predisporre un valido ed efficace contratto è la sussistenza di una convivenza tra due parti (persone di diverso o dello stesso sesso), che devono essere “maggiorenni, unite stabilmente da legami affettivi di coppia e di reciproca assistenza morale e materiale, non vincolate da rapporti di parentela, affinità o adozione, da matrimonio o da unione civile” (comma 36).                                          La sopravvenienza di una delle circostanze sopra evidenziate estingue il contratto di convivenza con efficacia dal momento del verificarsi della stessa.

Il contratto, che ha una durata coincidente con il rapporto di convivenza (anche se alcuni accordi producono effetti proprio a partire dalla cessazione del rapporto di convivenza, come quelli che definiscono i  reciproci rapporti patrimoniali in caso di cessazione della convivenza), produce veri e propri obblighi a carico delle parti che lo hanno sottoscritto, con la conseguente possibilità di adire l’autorità giudiziaria nei confronti della parte che lo ha disatteso.

Attraverso un contratto di convivenza è possibile disciplinare diversi aspetti patrimoniali relativi alla coppia, quali:

  • le modalità di partecipazione alle spese comuni, dunque la definizione degli obblighi di contribuzione reciproca nelle spese comuni o nell'attività lavorativa domestica ed extradomestica;
  • i criteri di attribuzione della proprietà dei beni acquistati nel corso della convivenza (potendo dunque definire un sorta di regime di comunione o separazione dei beni);
  • le modalità di uso della casa adibita a residenza comune (sia che l’immobile sia di proprietà di uno solo dei conviventi, sia che sia di entrambi, sia che la casa sia locata);
  • le modalità per la definizione dei reciproci rapporti patrimoniali in caso di cessazione della convivenza, sì da evitare successive eventuali discussioni e rivendicazioni;
  • la facoltà di assistenza reciproca in tutti i casi di malattia fisica o psichica (o qualora vi sia una compromissione della capacità di intendere e di volere di una delle parti), o la reciproca designazione ad amministratore di sostegno.

Secondo quanto previsto dall’art1, comma 51 della legge 76 del 2016, la sottoscrizione del contratto di convivenza (così come le modifiche e la risoluzione) ha la forma minima di scrittura privata autenticata da un avvocato od un notaio. Può però essere anche redatto per atto pubblico (notarile). La forma notarile sarà invece necessaria, come previsto dal comma 60 della legge, per tutti quei contratti collegati che prevedano il trasferimento di diritti reali immobiliari.

Ai fini dell’opponibilità ai terzi,il notaio o l’avvocato che ha ricevuto l’atto deve trasmetterne copia, entro i successivi 10 giorni, al comune di residenza dei conviventi per l’iscrizione all’anagrafe, conformemente al regolamento anagrafico della popolazione residente.

Ciascun convivente, infine, ha la possibilità di recedere (unilateralmente) dal contratto di convivenza, con dichiarazione unilaterale resa al notaio o all’avvocato.  Qualora ad esercitare il recesso sia il convivente unico titolare della disponibilità della residenza familiare, tuttavia, lo stesso dovrà concedere all’altro convivente un termine di almeno novanta giorni per abbandonare l’immobile.

Pur non trattandosi di un obbligo ma di una possibilità per i conviventi, la previsione e la disciplina di un contratto simile certamente rappresenta un importante passo in tema di riconoscimento delle unioni di atto e dei loro diritti.

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