Assegno ai figli maggiorenne: un diritto "a scadenza"

Mantenimento dei figli!

L’art 315 bis, comma 1 c.c sancisce l'obbligo di entrambi i genitori di mantenere, istruire ed educare i figli, tenendo in considerazione le inclinazioni e le aspirazioni degli stessi, in proporzione alle rispettive sostanze e secondo la propria capacità di lavoro professionale o casalingo.

Ma fino a quando si protrae tale obbligo dei genitori nei confronti della prole?

Sicuramente non ad infinitum, ma certo è che il raggiungimento della maggiore età non è elemento sufficiente affinché venga meno il dovere al mantenimento da parte dei genitori.

Con la legge 154 del 2013 è stato introdotto l'art. 337 septiesc.c, il quale statuisce che il giudice può disporre il pagamento di un assegno periodico in favore dei figli maggiorenni non economicamente indipendenti, tenuto conto delle circostanze del caso di specie. Questa introduzione è stata un’ulteriore novità rispetto a quanto era stato disposto dalla legge sull'affidamento condiviso (n. 54/2006), che aveva già espressamente previsto una simile attribuzione a favore dei figli maggiorenni non autosufficienti sotto il profilo economico.

Innanzitutto è bene individuare, con riferimento all’obbligazione in oggetto, i due requisiti essenziali affinché essa possa sorgere.

Il primo è la coabitazione,ossia un collegamento stabile con l’abitazione del genitore. Non è però indispensabile che quotidianamente il figlio viva con i genitori, essendo ammessa l’ipotesi di spostamenti per motivi di studio o di lavoro. Il trasferimento in altra città del maggiorenne, invece, facendo venir meno lo statusdi convivente, determina la decadenza dal diritto a richiedere l’assegno.

Il secondo è il mancato raggiungimento dell’indipendenza economica. La Corte di Cassazione con ordinanza 12 aprile 2016, n. 7168 sancisce che

“Il dovere dei genitori di mantenere i figli maggiorenni cessa a seguito del raggiungimento, da parte di quest'ultimi, di una condizione di indipendenza economica che si verifica con la percezione di un reddito corrispondente alla professionalità acquisita ovvero quando il figlio, divenuto maggiorenne, è stato posto nelle concrete condizioni per poter essere economicamente autosufficiente, senza averne però tratto utile profitto per sua colpa o per sua scelta”. 

L'autosufficienza economica  si considera raggiunta ove il figlio trovi un impiego tale da consentirgli un reddito corrispondente alla sua professionalità e un'appropriata collocazione nel contesto economico-sociale di riferimento, adeguata alle sue attitudini ed aspirazioni.                                                  Può dirsi raggiunta la sua indipendenza economica laddove il figlio ottenga una serie di "contratti a termine e guadagni contenuti", (Cass. Civ. sentenza n. 13354 del 26.05.2017).
Diversamente, la prestazione di lavoro da parte del figlio occupato come apprendista non è tale da dimostrarne l’autosufficienza economica, "atteso che il complessivo contenuto dello speciale rapporto di apprendistato si distingue sotto vari profili, anche retributivi, da quello degli ordinari rapporti di lavoro subordinato" (Cass. Civ., sentenza n. 407, del 13.01.2007).                                            È chiaro che qualora il maggiorenne, dopo aver raggiunto la piena autosufficienza economica, perda il lavoro, non potrà  più chiedere il mantenimento ai genitori. E l’obbligo alla corresponsione dell’assegno cessa anche nell’ipotesi in cui il mancato raggiungimento dell’autonomia sia causato da negligenza del figlio stesso, anche se in tal caso deve essere il genitore a dover dar prova dell’inerzia del proprio figlio.

Dunque i figli maggiorenni, alla presenza dei requisiti di cui sopra, hanno diritto al mantenimento da parte dei genitori proprio come i minorenni.                                                                                                   Questione controversa è quella inerente il soggetto legittimato a far valere in giudizio il diritto di cui si parla.                                                                                                                                      Sicuramente per ottenere l’assegno i figli possono intentare un’azione autonoma, essendo la Cassazione, ad esempio, favorevole riguardo all'intervento del figlio maggiorenne ma non autonomo nel giudizio di separazione o divorzio pendente tra i propri genitori, al fine di far valere il proprio diritto al mantenimento (Cass. n. 18844/2007; n. 23590/2010). Dunque il genitore obbligato al mantenimento non può di sua iniziativa versare l'assegno direttamente al figlio. E' solo il figlio maggiorenne che può chiedere al Giudice di disporre il versamento diretto del mantenimento.                                  L’orientamento maggioritario, poi, ritiene  sussistente  la legittimazione del coniuge convivente ad  agire iure proprionei confronti dell'altro genitore, in assenza di un'autonoma richiesta da parte del figlio, al fine di richiedere il versamento dell'assegno (Cass. n. 9238/1996; n. 11320/2005; n. 359/2014; n. 921/2014; n. 1805/2014).

Quella in esame, comunque,non èun’obbligazione senza tempo: con il superamento di una certa età, infatti, il figlio maggiorenne, anche se non indipendente sotto il profilo economico, raggiunge comunque una sua dimensione di vita autonoma che lo rende, al più, meritevole dei diritti di cui all’art 433 c.c. La soglia di età di cui si parla è stabilita da molti tribunali, che individuano un momento a partire dal quale il soggetto non può più essere trattato come figlio, bensì come adulto. Ovviamente, è opportuno valutare ciascun caso singolarmente ed in virtù delle relative peculiarità, ma non v’è dubbio che stabilire delle soglie d’età limite, permette di ridurre il numero di azioni intentate per il riconoscimento di tale diritto, e, cosa forse ancora più importante, elimina lo spiacevole fenomeno del figlio “parassita”.

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